Botswana, Bechuana, Sechuana, Setswana
The improved Tswana are large in body size, maintain the long horns of the Ngami predecessors, have cervico-thoracic hump that varies in size; coat colour varies between red, red pied, black or black pied. Tswana cattle are tolerant to heavy tick challenge, and may have some level of resistance to the endemic heartwater. A national breed improvement program exists (Felius, 1995).
Botswana is the epicentre of distribution of the Setswana cattle. Following the emergence of commercial ranching as a viable livestock industry in Botswana in recent decades, the Tswana breed has been developed as the most important beef breed, and in 1983 it constituted 75% of the national herd.
Sanga cattle were introduced into southern Africa when the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) first crossed the Zambezi river about 700AD with their sanga cattle. Several waves of the Bantu people with various strains of sanga cattle entered the region and settled. The Tswana people settled with their livestock in the Ngami region of Botswana early in the 19th century and their cattle eventually displaced all the original Ngami cattle. Despite the apparent differences between the western (Ngamiland) and eastern (Batawana) subgroups of cattle, all the sanga cattle in Botswana are known to belong to Tswana breed. Tribal migration and cattle raids continued until recently; consequently the different breeds of sanga today are related (Felius, 1995; Rege and Tawah, 1999).